The US Attorney’s Office in the Northern District of California recently settled an enforcement action against Ripple Labs Inc., a Delaware corporation providing virtual currency exchange services. According to the settlement agreement, Ripple Labs was not registered with the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) as a money services business (MSB) pursuant to the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 while engaged in currency trading, and lacked required anti-money laundering controls.

Ripple Labs is a virtual currency exchange service dealing in XRP, the second-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization after Bitcoin. Between at least March and April 2013, Ripple Labs sold XRP in its exchange. During the time of the sales, Ripple Labs was not registered with FinCEN. In March 2013, FinCEN’s released guidance clarifying the applicability of registration requirements to certain participants in the virtual currency arena. Ripple Labs also lacked an adequate anti-money laundering program, and did not have a compliance officer to assure compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act.

The settlement agreement reached by Ripple Labs and the US Department of Justice (DOJ) called for a $450,000 forfeiture to the DOJ, as well as a civil money penalty of $700,000 to FinCEN. Ripple Labs agreed to cooperate with any DOJ or regulatory request for information. In addition, Ripple Labs agreed to operate its XRP exchange as an MSB registered with FinCEN and to maintain all necessary registrations. Ripple Labs also agreed to implement and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program, complete with a compliance officer and training program. Finally, Ripple Labs agreed to conduct a review of prior transactions for evidence of illegal activity, as well as monitor transactions in the future to avoid potential money laundering or illegal transfer activity.

U.S. Department of Justice Settlement Agreement (May 5, 2015)